The solutions I have worked on have ranged from out of the box no-code SharePoint solutions all the way to custom coded C# intranet sites, web services, windows and console applications. Below are some of the coding focused posts and reference code I have developed.
Personal Information Manager GitHub repo. This is a sample intranet style ASP.NET / MVC / EF application I put together as a reference implementation. While the scope of the app is small, I think it illustrates some good practices regarding unit testing, testable code, and writing for technical documentation and user facing training material.